How to select the right technology for STP | WWTP Technologies Selection Guide

How to select the right technology for STP | WWTP Technologies Selection Guide

Kelvin Water Technologies is a leading provider of water, wastewater treatment solutions, and solid waste management. They specialize in the design, engineering, installation, manufacturing, and commissioning of water, wastewater treatment plants, or solid waste management systems for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. The company is based in Gurugram, India, and provides a wide range of products and services. They also provide consulting services for water treatment projects and offer after-sales support. 

Cost-efficient and low OPEX technologies in wastewater treatment plants?

Cost-efficient and low operational expense (OPEX) technologies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can significantly reduce operational costs and improve operational efficiency. Low OPEX technologies for WWTPs include:

  1. MBR: MBR stands for Membrane Bioreactor, which is a technology used in sewage treatment plants. It is a combination of a biological treatment process and a membrane filtration system. In this system, microorganisms are used to break down organic matter and remove pollutants from wastewater. The treated water is then passed through membrane filtration this technology involves the use of membranes to filter and clean wastewater. It is a cost-effective way to remove solids, bacteria, and other contaminants from wastewater. MBR is also energy-efficient and can be used to produce potable water from wastewater
  2. MBBR: MBBR is a process of creating microorganisms that consume sludge. Since the bulk volume of MBBR is made up of the swelled media (or agitated), the volume becomes smaller and liquid fills in the spaces between solid particles. In an MBBR system, the circulating liquid has a higher value than 10 microns and all the particles carrying it are either liquids or gases at room temperature. Since microbes need organics to live on, they cannot survive on heavy solids except certain API types. Therefore, MBBR produces sludge biomass depending upon organic matter available in the sewage that can be converted into carbon dioxide molecules – this process reduces emissions of CO2 into the air.
  3. SBR: A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a type of activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment plants to treat sewage or industrial wastewater. It is a variation of the conventional activated sludge process, where the treatment process is carried out in batch mode. The SBR process involves filling a single tank with wastewater, aerating the mixture, and allowing the microorganisms to consume the organic matter in the wastewater. The process is carried out in batches, which means that each cycle includes multiple stages, such as filling, aeration, settling, and decanting.
  4. EC: Electrocoagulation (EC) is a wastewater treatment process that uses an electrical current to remove contaminants and pollutants from sewage or industrial wastewater. It is an electrochemical process that involves the generation of coagulant species through the oxidation or reduction of metal electrodes. In an EC system, the wastewater is passed through a treatment chamber where metal electrodes are submerged in the wastewater. An electrical current is applied to the electrodes, causing the metal ions to dissolve and react with the contaminants in the wastewater. This reaction forms coagulants, which react with the suspended solids in the wastewater, forming large particles that settle at the bottom of the chamber.
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These technologies are cost-effective and energy-efficient ways to reduce operational costs and improve operational efficiency in WWTPs. They can help reduce the amount of sludge produced, reduce organic matter and pollutants in wastewater, and generate energy from wastewater.

Parameters for discharge of wastewater

Wastewater discharge parameters refer to the set of limits or criteria that must be met when discharging wastewater into the environment. These parameters are usually specified by local, state, or national environmental agencies and are designed to protect human health and the environment from the potential adverse effects of wastewater discharge. Common parameters for wastewater discharge include pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and temperature. The pH of the wastewater must be within a specified range of 6.5–9.0 to ensure it is not too acidic or alkaline. BOD and COD are measures of the amount of oxygen required by microorganisms to break down the organic matter in the wastewater. TSS quantifies the number of suspended solids in wastewater. Total nitrogen and phosphorus levels indicate the presence of nutrients, which can lead to eutrophication and algal growth in receiving waters. Temperature is also important because it affects the oxygen levels in the water, which can be lethal to aquatic life. Other parameters, such as oil and grease, heavy metals, and fecal coliform levels, may also be required depending on the type of wastewater being discharged. Wastewater discharges are regulated to ensure that the receiving environment is not harmed by the discharge. It is important to meet all the necessary parameters to avoid penalties and legal action.

Upgradation of the current STP Plant

1) Increase the capacity of the plant: The capacity of the plant can be increased by using a larger tank or by adding additional modules to the existing tank. This will allow for more wastewater to be treated at a given time and also allow for greater flexibility in the treatment process.

2) Improve the aeration system: The aeration system is responsible for providing oxygen to the wastewater and removing pollutants from the water. Improving the system can be done by installing larger air diffusers, introducing a second aeration system, or adding additional air pumps.

3) Improve the filtration system: The filtration system is responsible for removing solids from the wastewater. This can be done by installing larger filters, more efficient filters, or by adding additional filter media.

4) Improve the clarifier system: The clarifier system is responsible for removing suspended solids from the wastewater. This can be done by installing larger clarifiers, more efficient clarifiers, or by adding additional clarifier media.

5) Introduce chemical treatment: Chemical treatment is necessary to remove certain pollutants from wastewater. This can be done by introducing a chemical feed system, using chemical reagents, or using catalysts.

6) Introduce advanced treatment processes: Advanced treatment processes such as membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet light can be used to further improve the quality of the wastewater. These processes can be incorporated into the existing system or added as additional modules.

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