An Effluent Treatment Plant, also known as ETP, is a process used to treat industrial wastewater with the potential for extreme contamination from pharmaceuticals, textiles, and chemicals. This process is critical in treating not only industrial wastewater but domestic sewage too. It serves to reduce organic matter, inorganic matter, suspended particles, and other contaminants such as oil & grease, and heavy metals. Various forms of treatment are employed in an ETP including chemical treatment, biological treatment, a combination of both, or thermal treatment.
What is ETP?
An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) is a system designed to treat wastewater that has been contaminated by industrial activities before it’s discharged into the environment. This process helps to remove hazardous chemicals and pollutants from wastewater, ensuring it complies with environmental regulations.
The ETP operates through physical, chemical, and biological treatment processes where contaminants are removed from the water using different techniques. These techniques range from sedimentation, flocculation, and coagulation to the activated sludge process.
Types & Process of ETP
ETP is essential to water management in industrial sectors, as it safeguards the surrounding environment by purifying wastewater for discharge. ETP treatment levels can be defined as four successive steps: preliminary treatment prior to release, primary level release, secondary stage employing biological processes, and lastly membrane cleansing.
Industries where ETP must be installed.
Manufacturing Sector: The Ministry of Environment and Climate Change has laid down strict regulations for a variety of manufacturing companies, including electroplaters, phosphate industries, paper industries, steel mills, sugar mills, dyeing businesses, food & beverage firms, pharmaceutical & drug plants, tanneries, and car manufactures. As such, Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) are an economical means of conserving energy and eliminating polluted effluent from the Manufacturing Sector.
ETPs for Pharmaceutical: In the pharmaceutical sector, wastewater is generated during the production or formulation of medicines. Oils, grease, and hazardous compounds can all be removed from industrial effluent generated by the Pharma sector by aerobic/anaerobic treatment, membrane filtration, or RO plants.
ETP for Hospitals: Hospital effluent contains many radioactive isotopes, microbiological pathogens, particles from spent solutions, syringes, large metals, and disinfectants, all of which could be hazardous to human health. As a result, environmentalists place a high value on wastewater treatment plants for hospitals, which require a lot of fresh running water for everyday operations.
ETP For Chemical Industry: A wide variety of chemical-based products are produced in this industry, including petrochemicals, agrochemicals, ceramics, polymers, rubber oleochemicals, explosives, perfumes, and others. Due to the presence of both biological and inorganic materials in water during the production of all these items, the effluent must be treated before it is discharged into the water cycle.
ETP for Textile Industry: The textile industry produces a large volume of wastewater containing dyes, printing inks, and finishing chemicals. ETP’s main goal is to clean and recycle Effluent for future use. Evaporation and separation technology will separate water and salt from effluent to reduce the amount of effluent to zero. It is mandatory that the effluent meet quality criteria before it is discharged into the environment.
10 points always to consider before purchasing any ETP Plant.
- Capacity Of Plant
- Process Involved In various stages of the treatment (I.e., primary, secondary, or tertiary treatment.)
- Safety level/briefing by HSSE Officer
- Flow chart of the treatment plant’s process
- Process description, mass balance, detailed calculation, HRT, etc., for each process unit
- Significant parameters of the influent
- Regulations that the wastewater plant is subjected to
- Equipment/instrumentation list: pH probe, pump, etc