Wastewater Recycling is a method of treating wastewater generated from industries like (food, steel &iron, nuclear, oil & gas, and battery manufacturing industries, etc.) in the form of unwanted products. It makes those unwanted products usable by recycling them through various kinds of techniques according to the requirement for getting the best possible results.
What is Wastewater? and how its generated!
Wastewater is defined as used water which is generated from various areas and has been affected by industrial, commercial, & residential use. it contains human waste, foods, chemicals, waste products, and many kinds of impurities that create harmful effects on our environment and is required to be treated. It is also known as sewerage, domestic or municipal wastewater.
It is generated from various sources and some of them are domestic sewage, industrial effluents, and runoff from agriculture, food processing, power plants, oil & gas plants, etc. India is very wealthy in water resources with a network of more than 113 rivers and vast alluvial basins to contain plenty of groundwater and generates a huge 1.7 million tonnes of waste manure in a day. According to the official figures, 78% of the generated sewages remain untreated and are disposed of in rivers, groundwater, lakes, and oceans.
Current Figures of Wastewater Discharge & its Norms in India?
The rise in population in India plays a significant role in minimizing the quality and quantity of water. Mainly in urban areas, water resources are under convincing pressure due to the demand for high water as well as complicated consumption patterns within a small but highly populated area. At the current time, India can treat about 37 per of their wastewater, or 22,963 million liters per day (MLD), against a daily sewage generation of approximately 61,754 MLD according to the 2015report of the Central Pollution Control Board.
Wastewater Discharge Parameters:-
|2||BOD||≤ 20 mg/l|
|3||COD||≤ 250 mg/l|
|4||Oil & Grease||≤ 5 mg/l|
|5||Total Suspended Solids||≤ 30 mg/l|
|6||Nitrogen||≤ 5 mg/l|
|7||Ammonia Nitrogen||≤ 50 mg/l|
|8||Phosphorous||≤ 5 mg/l|
|9||Total Coliform||1000 no./100 ml|
How to Treat Wastewater?
The rapid increase of wastewater is causing many kinds of serious problems for human beings as well as our environment therefore it is very much important to treat them. It is treated by removing available contaminants/impurities from them and converting them into effluents for the recycling process through a physical, chemical,& biological without affecting our environment.
The treatment process is done in various Wastewater Treatment Plant that varies according to the type of treated wastewater for the best results. The main purpose of treating wastewater is to convert them into reusable for other purposes or its successful disposal into the environment.
Technologies Used for Wastewater Treatment:-
There are various types of technologies used in wastewater management and promoting a better & greener environment for the future such as Dissolved Air Flotation, Sewage Treatment, Effluent Treatment, Zero Liquid Discharge & Rainwater Harvesting, etc.
Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF): Dissolved Air Flotation is the most advanced method of treating wastewater through air pressure. It removes harmful impurities like oil, sewages, and suspended solids from wastewater through air pressure.
Sewage Treatment Plant (STP): Sewage Treatments are used very widely for wastewater management and eliminate contaminants from water by using physical, chemical, and biological methods. It is very useful for eliminating all kinds of disease-causing bacteria as well as killing harmful organisms available in the water.
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP): Effluent Treatment Plant is designed to treat municipal and industrial effluent, which consists of wastewater, dirt, or sewage and ETP eliminates all impurities from effluent and separates and extracts valuable substances from it.
Zero Liquid Discharge(ZLD) Plant: As the name suggests ZLD recover more than 95% of wastewater while reducing the remaining brine as a product or solid with zero liquid waste. It is a proven and effective wastewater management method and uses the latest ion exchange technology for the removal of salts, cations & anions from wastewater.
Rainwater Harvesting Plant: Rainwater Harvesting is an intelligent & commonly used method of treating wastewater for multiple years. It protects humans from water shortage problems in the monsoon season by collecting rainwater in large containers and making it usable for the households after filtrating it.